Does the Sun make any type of movement in the Solar System?

Since we know the world, the Sun remains in the same position in the sky, at least from the perspective of those on Earth. Despite this, it is a star in constant dynamics and change, sending energy through radiation to different regions of space, including our planet — after all, it is what allows us to wake up alive every day.

It is no surprise that the Sun is considered the largest cosmic object in our star system, measuring approximately 1.4 million kilometers in diameter.. Although it appears to be static in the sky when observed with the naked eye, the most important star in the Solar System is far from motionless; In reality, the massive cosmic structure is responsible for several processes that occur in space.

The Sun is the largest object in the Solar System, but does it move at all?The Sun is the largest object in the Solar System, but does it move at all?Source: Getty Images

Scientists know that the Sun's apparent movement on Earth is not due to its own activity, but to the Earth's rotation around the star's orbit. So, the movements that result in sunrises and sunsets are not caused by the rotation of the Sun. After all, does the Sun make any movement in the Solar System?

To explain a little more about this possibility, TecMundo gathered information from scientists and experts in the field. Check out!

The movement of the Sun

To answer simply: Yes, the Sun moves through the Solar System. The limited oscillation motion of the star is responsible for the gravitational influences of the planets that orbit it, such as Earth, Mars, Jupiter and other celestial bodies in the system.

But it is important to highlight that the movement is not as fast as that of the Earth, as it It takes approximately 230 million years to complete one revolution around the Milky Way — even at an impressive speed of 720,000 kilometers per hour. For example, the cosmic object rotates on its own axis at a tilt of 7.25 degrees, while the Earth rotates around our galaxy.

In other words, even though the massive celestial body travels at around 720 thousand kilometers per hour around the center of the Milky Way, its movement is slower compared to the Earth on its own axis. The Sun may take millions of years to complete an orbit, but our planet completes this journey in just 365 days — without considering that the Earth's globe makes a complete rotation in just 24 hours.

The animation presents the orbit of a planet affected by its main star, like the Sun and Earth.Source: NASA

“The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way, bringing with it the planets, asteroids, comets and other objects of our solar system. Our solar system is moving at an average speed of 450,000 miles per hour (approx. 724,204 km/h). But even at this speed, the Sun takes about 230 million years to make a complete revolution around the Milky Way”, NASA describes in a publication.

How long does a rotation day last?

As the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) explains, the Sun is not exactly solid, so its different parts rotate at different speeds. The star makes one rotation on its axis every 36 Earth days, whereas in its equator region it takes 25 days for each complete rotation.

In comparison, Neptune has the longest orbit compared to its neighbors, as one rotation lasts 164.8 years. Mercury's planetary orbit is considered the shortest, completing a year in just 88 days.

Scientists have discovered that the Sun is not static since the 17th century, when Galileo Galilei studied the celestial body and observed a process essential to the solar cycle., sunspots. He observed that the spots seemed to come and go as he viewed the Sun through his telescope. Currently, scientists still use sunspots to measure the orbit of the globe of fire.

As it is a body made up of dense ionized gas, such as hydrogen and helium, it rotates completely differently than the planets in the Solar System. The researchers point out that it rotates with the so-called 'differential rotation', as the rotation occurs at different rates in different regions. The layers inside also rotate at different speeds. In short, the Sun and the rest of the Solar System move around the center of the Milky Way.

“Motion is always relative to the frame of reference. The solar system orbits around the center of the Milky Way — our galaxy — but even within the frame of the solar system, the Sun is not exactly static due to gravitational interaction with the other bodies in the system. Due to the large difference in mass between the Sun and every other body in the solar system, the Sun is the main gravitational attractor and is not greatly affected by the gravity of any other planet,” said solar scientist Patrick Antolin of the English University of Northumbria, in a message sent to the website space.

Did you like the content? So, always stay up to date with more curiosities about the Sun here at TecMundo. If you wish, take the opportunity to discover where the Earth receives the least sunlight.

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